Leadership Style: Scope and Application in Indian Organisation


By
Vishal Garg
Asst. Professor
Dewan Institute of Marketing Management
Meerut
 


ABSTRACT

This study focuses on the concept and characteristics of leadership and the responsibilities of a leader. It also illustrates and identifies the different leadership styles and their applicability in Indian organizations. In today's organization, most of the work is done in a team and to manage the team in an effective manner the right choice is required. It has been observed that at times due to the failure of using right kind of leadership style managers have to face various challenges and ultimately it becomes hard to improve productivity even with the best of work force

There are many ways to differentiate leaders from others persons. A recognized leader is someone who has followers; whose focus is not on popularity but on results; a role model - he/she is highly visible and leads by example - is a "doer";

CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP

Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group towards the achievement of a goal in a given situation. Leadership manifests ability, creativity, innovation and initiative, and imbibes confidence, cooperation, and willingness of people to work and build employees - morale.

Leadership involves building an organization that can work to achieve the goal and establish measures that guarantee that the organization is moving in the right direction. The qualities that are required to accomplish' this task are not essentially technical or product - knowledge. Instead, they are general qualities such as;

* Good business sense
* An understanding of how the different parts of the organization - the people and groups within it- interrelate.
* An ability to think strategically beyond the mere details.
* The capacity to understand and manage change.
* An ability to articulate the vision and goals and then communicate these throughout the organization.

The leader must identify a business strategy for the organization, which is designed to meet the customer's needs. The leader then organizes in such a way that it enables the organization to pursue that strategy and get best result. A leader has to motivate, particularly, the frontline staff, translate the organization's goals and strategies into practical and achievable objectives, and provide resources to achieve their objective.

For any organization of perform effectively, it is the leader who has to ensure that:

* Both the mission and the immediate task are abundantly clear to everyone.
* The results are clearly specified,
* The performance is assessed against a clear set of goals and objectives.
* The organization is managed efficiently because there needs to be someone who accepts responsibility for making decision and for achieving results.

The primary task of leader in an organization is:

* Creating a conducive work-environment.
* Setting the necessary goals & objectives.
* Motivating employees, providing necessary training directions, and explaining and clarifying ways to achieve set objectives.
* Providing the resources required for attaining goals and objectives both on the long-term basis.

Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of other to work willingly and enthusiastically for achieving predetermined goals. The leader is the individual with the most influence in a group, whose role is to get other to achieve organization goals. It is the quality of the behaviour of the individuals whereby they guide people or their activities in an organized effort.

Leadership has been defined as" The relationship in which one person pr leader, influence other to work together willingly on related task to attain that which leader desires." This author views leadership a relational concept implying two ideas the influencing agent and the person who are influenced to get a task done. In other words, without followers there can be on leader.

"Leadership is interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed through communication process, towards the attainment of a specified goal or goals."

A more recent definition of leadership is as follows:

"Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically towards achieving objectives."

A leadership' job is to develop responsibility and initiative among his subordinates. A leader' job is to take decision and exercise authority. A group is as strong as its leader. Once the leader shows weakness he is dead. To be a leader you must be aggressive and tell people what they should do. If you want to be sensitive to the needs of others and tell them what they want to hear anyway.

WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? SOME CONTEMPORARY OBSERVATION

No matter what leaders set out to do-whether it's creating strategy or mobilizing teams to action-their success depends on how they do it." ( Goleman, 2002, p.3)

Leadership has been defined in so many ways and by different authors and experts.
Noel Tichy and Cohen (1997) the authors of "Leadership Engine" points out:


The scarcest resource in the world today is the leadership talent capable of continuously transforming organizations to win in tomorrow's world. The individuals and organizations that build Leadership Engines and invest in leaders developing other leaders have a sustainable competitive advantage.(p.8)

According to Tichy and Cohen:

Winning leaders with a proven record take direct responsibility for developing other leaders

Winning leaders can articulate and teach to others about how to make the organization successful. They tell stories about their past and explain their learning experiences and beliefs

They have well-developed methodologies for teaching others.

Leadership talent can be nurtured and it is never too late or early to develop one own leadership abilities and talent of others.

Leaders are normally viewed as those people who motivate one or more people to do a specific thing.

Warren Bennis says that the basis of the leadership is the capacity to change the mindset or framework of the other person. (Tichy, and Cohen, 1997)

Briane Lee (1997) of Franklin Covey after reviewing a number of studies on leadership states after a review of modern definitions of leadership that leadership is

* An intensely human enterprise, and does not fit neatly into definitions and boxes. Leaders have all the spontaneity, unpredictability, frailty, vulnerability and potential that is possible in the human race. If we are to lead with honor, we must start with the premise that flexibility, adaptability, and wisdom are possible, that we have seeds of greatness in us, and if we care deeply about the lives of others, we can work together to accomplish worthwhile things."(P265).

Tom Peters (1997) quoting Warren Bennis points out that one thing in common to most leaders is that they all make mistakes but bounce back from them. They use failures as building blocks.

The ability to spend more time framing contexts and less time defining the content more through coaching and supporting rather than directing and controlling becomes the model for middle managers (Ghosal and Bartlet, 1997)

Hessebbein and Cohen (1998) of the Drucker Foundation say that leaders exist at all levels of the organization. They identified the following traits of leaders:

They excel seeing things from fresh eyes and they challenge status quo
They are energetic and seem to be able to run through obstacles
They are deeply interested in a cause or discipline related to their professional arena
They can tap convictions of others and connect them to the organizational arena
They help every one see what their everyday work means to larger purpose They have a high quest for learning
They are open to people and their ideas
They are driven by goals or ideals that are bigger than what an individual can accomplish
They are willing to push themselves from comfort zones even after they have achieved success

Smart (1998) in his book on "Top Grading" lists 50 critical competencies for top graders. Some of these include: Intelligence; Analytical skills; Judgement and decision making; Conceptual ability; Creativity; Strategic skills; Pragmatism; Risk taking; Integrity; Initiative; Excellence; Self awareness; Adaptability; Listening; Team Player; Assertiveness; Communications; Political savvy; Running meetings; Vision; Change management; Conflict management; Energy; Ambition; Enthusiasm; Tenacity; and Balance in life.

Daniel Goleman (1998) considers Emotional Intelligence as central to leadership. In his chapter on the competencies of stars Goleman identifies personal and social competencies as constituting the emotional competence. The following characteristics have been included in his framework:

Personal competencies determine how we manage ourselves. These include:

1. Self-awareness (knowing one's internal states, resources, and intuitions). This includes emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence.
2. Self-regulation including managing one's internal states, impulses and resources. These include self-control, Trustworthiness, Conscientiousness, Adaptability, and Innovation
3. Motivation, including the tendencies that guide or facilitate reaching goals. These include Achievement drive, Commitment, Initiative, and optimism.

Social Competencies that determine how we handle relationships. These include:

1. Empathy or awareness of others' feelings needs and concerns. These include understanding others, developing others, Service orientation, Leveraging Diversity, and political awareness in others.

2. Social skills dealing with adeptness at inducing desirable response. These include
Influence, Communication, Conflict management, Leadership, Change Catalyst, Building bonds, Collaboration and Cooperation and building team capabilities.

Goleman observes "Emotional, a role whose essence is getting others to do their jobs more effectively. Interpersonal ineptitude in leaders lowers everyone's performance: It wastes time, creates acrimony, corrodes motivation and commitment, and builds hostility and apathy. A leader's strengths or weaknesses in emotional competence can be measured in the gain or loss to the organization of the fullest talents of those they manage." (P32).

Jefery Peffer (1998) observes three qualities of most successful transformations:

* Build trust
* Encouragechange
* Measure the right things and align the incentive system to new practices
Peffer argues that a people centered approach can increase profits and give competitive advantage to itself.

Goleman (2002) in his recent book on "The New Leaders" Has presented enough evidence on how moods of people influence their work and productivity and how leaders in turn through their styles influence the moods of their people. He presented evidence through a number of studies indicating the following:

Negative emotions like anger, anxiety, or a sense of futility powerfully disrupt work;

Best leaders find a way to understand and improve the way they handle their own and other people's emotions;

When leaders drive emotions positively it results in resonance and when they draw it negatively it results in dissonance;

People take their emotional cues from the top and besides affecting their direct reports leaders also send out ripple effects through out the organization;

When people feel good they work at their best the more positive the moods of the top management are more cooperatively they work together and the better are the results.

The climate created by the CEOs among their direct reports predicted the business performance of their organizations;

How people feel about their working for the company accounts for about 20 to 30% of the success of the company.

Goleman (2202) identified the following six leadership styles:

1. Visionary Leader: who moves people towards shared dreams
2. Coaching leader who connects what a person wants with the organization
3. Affiliative leader who creates harmony by connecting people to each other
4. Democratic leader who values people's input and gets their commitment through participation
5. Pace setting leader who meets challenging and exciting goals
6. Commanding leader who soothes fear by giving clear direction in an emergency.
Goleman highlighted the appropriateness of each of these for different situations.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP: 

1. The key to leadership is to influence "influencing is transactions buy which a person or a group in induced by another person or group to act in conformance with the influencing agents' expectations. There are three major elements in the process of influencing – the agent exerting the influence, the method of exerting influence and the agent subject to influence. 

2. It involves the leader and his followers a specific goal, situation and communication of what is wanted and feedback. In other words, it is concerned with the way s leader behave in his man-to-man relationship with his follow

RESPOSIBILITES OF A LEADER

Though various authors have given different functions of leader but according to Killian, in a study published by American management association have listed following functions of leader':

1. To render service city multiplying the constitution of very individual who is its beneficiary.

2. To take decision (leading other a sufficient understudying not a reckless shooting from the hip but a calculated researching for and weighing of fact.)  

3. To elicit response (leading other to sufficient understudying to the need for a specific accomplishing the job in hand.)

4. To achieve result by guiding the energy of alters in a definite purpose.

5. To be willing to be different, to have a discipline and a standard of performance which are higher than those of non-leader.

Krech and Crutch field, they classify functions into two categories.

1. The primary functions, which are considered essential to leadership.

2. Accessory function may be assumed by the leader or assigned to him by the group by virtue of his position.

LEADERSHIP QUALITIES

The study conducted by recent researcher i.e. Ghiselli and his association evaluated the traits that correlated significantly ability, initiative, self-assurance and individually.

A good leader should posses the following qualities:-

* ENERGY

A leader should have both mental and physical energy to work for sufficiently long hours without feeling tired.

* EMOTIONAL MATURITY AND STABILITY

A leader should act with self confidence avoid anger, take decisions on a rational basis and think clearly. He should not be whimsical but consistent in his action because of his emotional stability and cool mind. According to Koontx and O' Donnele;" Leaders cannot afford to become panicky, unsure of themselves in the face of conflicting forces, doubtful of their principle when challenged, or amenable to influence."

* KNOWLEDGE OF HUMAN RELATION

A leader should have an understanding behaviour i.e. he should know people their needs, sentiments, emotions, and also their action and reaction to particular decisions their motivations etc.

* OBJECTIVITY

A leader's approach to any issue problem should be objectivity and not based on any pressure, fear, bias, prejudice or preconceived notice. His decision should base upon reasoning, facts and a careful analysis of a problem. Objectivity is a vital aspect of analytical decision-making. It also helps to ensure a fair; consistent course of action from the leader.

* EMAPATHY

A leader should be able to look at things objectively and from the point of view of others. He should respect the right of others. Their beliefs and sentiments In other words, he should equip himself to meet challenges emerging from the action and reaction of other people. The leader should be perspective or empathetic towards his subordinate followers so that they can discern their strengths, weaknesses, and ambition and can give them the attention they deserve.

* PERSONAL MOTIVATION

This involves the creation of enthusiasm within the leader himself to get the job done. It is only through enthusiasm that one can achieve what it wants.

* COMMUNICATION SKILLS

A leader should able to talk and write carefully and precisely. He should have the ability persuades inform, stimulate, direct and convince his subordinates that it is in their own interest to offer their willing cooperation in the performance of his task.

* TEACHING ABILITIES

A leader should have the ability to demonstrate how tA leader should have the ability to demonstration how to accomplish a particular task to correct errors, prepare followers for achievement and ask question and offer suggestions.

* SOCIAL SKILL

He should understand his people and their weak and strong points have the ability to win their confidence and loyalty, be helpful, friendly, sympathetic, and easy approachable.

* TECHNICAL COMPETENCE

He should have a thorough knowledge of competence in the principles, procedures and operations of job. Technical skill involves specialized knowledge, analytical skill and a facility in the use of the tools and techniques of a specific discipline.

* INTEGRITY

Leader should be morally sound in the word of Fredrick Taylor. Integrity is that straight forward honesty of purpose which makes a man truthful not only to others but to himself, which makes a man high – minded and gives him high aspiration and high ideas."

* CONCEPTUAL SKILL

He must have the ability to look at the enterprises as a whale, to recognize that the various function of an organization depend upon one another and are interrelated, that change in one affects all the other. In the words of Chester Branard the essential aspect of the executive process is the sensing of organization as a whole and the total situation relevant to it."

* MORAL COURAGE

A leader should have the moral courage to do the thing in which they believe is right. According to field Marshal Slim "Without courage, there are no virtues for faith, hope, charity and all rest do not become virtues until there is courage to exercise them."

* FLEXIBILITY OF MIND

A leader should have flexible mind so that he may change in obedience to the change in circumstances.

* ABILITY TO ESTABLISH PROPER PRIORTIES

He must have the ability to see what is important and what is not when decision is necessary. The gifted leader knows which alternative is worthy of consideration.

In the opinion of the Viscount Slim, the mail leadership traits are-

1. Courage
2. Will power
3. Judgment
4. Flexibility
5. Knowledge
6. Integrity

Ordway Tead is of the view that the qualities of leaders are-

1. Physical and nervous energy
2. Enthusiasm
3. Sense of purpose and direction
4. Technical mastery
5. Friendly and affection
6. Decisiveness
7. Integrity
8. Intelligence
9. Faith

In sum, a leader must have a dynamic personality, intellectual attainment,  striking features and such special traits as a powerful voice, a sweet and  amiable disposition, a modest and an assuming temperament and knowledge of  how to deal with his follower.

LEADERSHIP STYLES

The customary approach to the analysis of leader behavior is to classify various types of leadership into styles. The styles are the way in which the leader influences followers. The styles are based on types of control leader's exercise in a group and behavior towards group's members. The styles vary on the basis of the duties. The leader feels he alone should perform the responsibilities, which the leader expects his followers to accept, and the philosophical commitment of the leader to the development and fulfillment of subordinate's expectations. It also varies with the occasion, as well as with the types of leaders and followers. Most important is that effective leaders alter their own styles to fit the needs of a particular situation.

According to the philosophies of leaders their followers, the techniques of leadership its pattern and styles may now be classified are:- ,

1. Autocratic leadership or authoritarian or leader-centered leadership.
2. Consultative, participative, democratic or group-centered leadership.
3. Laissez-faire, free-rein, or individual-centered leadership.
4. Bureaucratic or rules- centered leadership.
5. Manipulative leadership.
6. Expert leadership.

* AUTOCRATIC OR AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP

An autocratic leadership is work centered or leader centered .He concentrates all the authority and the entire decision- making powers in him. He structures the complete work situation for his employees. There is no participation by his subordinates in the decision making process, they simply do what the are told to do. He tolerates no deviation from the orders. His subordinates fully depend upon him and are unaware of the goals of the organization. The leader tasks and assumes full responsibility for decision making for initiating action and for directing, motivating and controlling his subordinates. This is because the autocratic leader may think that he is· the only competent and capable individual, and that his subordinates' are incapable or unwilling to guide themselves, or he may have other reason for assuming a strong position of guidance and control . The leader usually says: 1\ "Look, I am the boss around here. I'll make the make the decision and I'll tell you what I want you  you to do. You would better do you to do. You would better do your job because I will be watching your every move." Autocratic style is efficient, needs little or no time to consult others during the decision making process, and it works well in developed situation when decision must be made and acted on quickly and without question .The tough autocrat leadership is useful when:

a) Subordinates are new on a job and have had no experience,
b) In an emergency, when decision must be taken immediately,
c) When disciplinary action is called and when hostility and aggressiveness are to be dealt with effectively.

* CONSULTATIVE OR DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP

This type of leadership centralizes managerial authority .The leader's decision are taken after consultation with his followers and after their participation in the decision making process .He involves the members of his groups in the decision on the feasibility and work ability of an idea, or a job and its content and on the extend and the content of the problems that affect them. Participative style is very useful in many ways. When workers feel their ideas are important and being made use of, they feel considerably committed to change in which they have participated. Workers also develop a greater feeling of self-esteem. This style of leadership is more appropriate under condition in which:

1. The company has communicated its goals and objectives to the subordinates.

2. Where the company practices use rewards and involvement as the primary means of motivation and control.

3. Where the leader - supervisor truly desires to hear the ideas of others before making decision

4. Where the leader wishes to develop analytical and self control abilities in the subordinates.

5. Where the workers are reasonably knowledgeable and experienced.

* FREE - REIN OR LAISSEZ FAIRE LEADERSHIP

This is often described "as no leadership at all", for there is the absence of direct leadership. Under this style, the leader delegates the authority for decision making into the hands of the subordinates rather completely. A task is ordinarily presented to the group, which establishes its own goals and works out its own techniques for accomplishing those goals. Within the framework of organizational policy. The leader expects his subordinates to assume responsibility for their own motivation, guidance and control. Expects for the stating of a minimum member of ground rules, leader provides very little guidance and support for the followers.

The free rein style of leadership would be most effective:

i) Under companies where it's go goals and the subordinates 'goals are highly compatible and they thoroughly communicated and are acceptable to the subordinates.

ii) When the leader desires to delegate decision making fully

iii) We have been n the leader has a high degree of confidence in the abilities of his subordinates.

iv) When the subordinates themselves are well trained and highly knowledgeable concerning their jobs and are willing to assume responsibility for decision-making and self control.

v) When the subordinates have a high need for independence.

* BUREAUCRATIC OR RULES CENTRED LEADERSHIP

The leader's behavior is characterized by a high degree of reliance on rules, regulation and procedures, to which both he and his subordinates subscribe. As a result, the process of administration is reduced to a series of routine actions. The rules specify the obligation of the subordinates, and enjoy upon them to do particular things in specific ways. There is no participation or initiative on his or her part. This style of leadership fosters workers apathy.

* MANIPULATIVE LEADERSHIP

This style of leadership is based on the belief that employees are persona who should be manipulated by the leader so that his goals may be attained. It exploits the aspirations of the employees know that they are being manipulated, and therefore become resentful and bitter. A manipulative leader, however, is very sensitive about the needs and desires of his employees as individuals. But the information gathered, as a result of this sensitivity is not used for the benefit of the employees instead it is utilized by him for his own personal profit.

The main characteristics of this style of leadership are:

a) Personal goals are reached by a manipulation of the ·employees.

b) Employee need and desires are viewed as tool's to extract performance.

* EXPERT LEADERSHIP

This is an emerging style of leadership resulting in part from the complexity of modern organization. The basis to expert leadership is the individual leader's knowledge and ability, and he assumes the role of the leader regardless of his age, sex, physical, or other attributes. It depends largely on the approximate mix of skills and the needs of others in a situation. In these circumstances group members look upon a person as an expert who must continuously demonstrate his expertise in order to maintain his position as a leader. In this style of leadership:

a) The perception of group members ensures that the leader's talent and expertise are joined with the needs of the situation.

b) Leadership skills are usually transferable.

The expert leader who is effective in one situation may really "bomb" in  another.

LEADERSHIP STYLE INSPIRES TEAM BUILDING

Leading a team comprises of responsibilities and the leader is required come up with some of efficient qualities to manage the team. To lead a team definitely, leader requires leadership style with him. Learning the style which are considered to be essential to play the role in an enriched manner should be relatively known by the leader. Working with a group of employees and acting as a boss does not matter, but leading a team in right way always matters. Effective inspiration and proper influence over people helps the manager to achieve the objective without any conflicts or disappointments. The purpose of leader in a group is to achieve the desire of the organization in a fruitful or competent manner. , the manager is required to know the consistency or capacity of employees initiated to achieve the specified goal of the company. The executive should know when to lead and when to manage the group. Communication plays an effective in team building and leading a team. Good communication enables the head to convey information and the objective of the organization required to be passed on to the employees. Identification of business competition, creating self awareness and generate adaptability with the changing and innovative environment. Leader is person who acts as a role model for different set of people who comprised in his team.

MANAGERS NEED LEADERSHIP SKILLS TRAINING

All businesses today recognise the importance of good management that is based on firm and basic management skills

But how are these managers taught what are good leadership skills Previously  before the advent of training courses managers were expected to know the principles of good management and practise them with little in the way of assessment or training to ensure that all managers met certain standards. This  would inevitably lead to inconsistencies in how leadership was practised and also result in poor practises being the norm-something which is not acceptable in the workplace of today.

If a business wants to have the best management and team leaders it is vital that they all possess excellent  leadership skills such as the ability to work with people, to motivate others, provide negative and positive feedback, encourage their teams to strive for their targets as well as other aspects of the  role. These are attributes that are not always inherent in a person and in order to provide a management structure that is positive and objective lead leader skills training can be a huge benefit.

Leadership skills courses can tend to be 'hit and miss' there are many company's out there who will tell you that their leadership courses are the best and get many delegates this way, but who can you trust to deliver what they say?

Any business that is looking to create a team of managers that have outstanding leadership skills which make them a credit to that business it is important that the training courses they attend build upon their existing skills and develop new ones. To be able to do these successfully training courses should be not only  designed to include the objectives, vision and beliefs of the but also be cost  effective and delivered in a timely fashion.
One way of doing this is to have an on-site training department that is responsible for training all employees but for the majority of small to medium sized businesses this is simply not a viable option as it is too costly. Instead it makes more sense financially and in terms of time spent training to use the services of an outside company to provide all your training needs. Deciding on  the company that provides your leadership training can be difficult, so it is important to look to a company that will take the time to tailor a training course for your business and be on hand after the course to provide 'after care' for any questions or queries that delegates may have.
Premier Training are a training company that go out of their way to provide leadership training that is cost effective, efficient and gets you the results that you want for your management team. This is done by creating leadership skills training courses that are in line with the needs and requirements of your business and totally relevant, thanks to communication between the training planner at Premier Training (who is not a salesperson but a training expert) and you the business owner. Tell Premier Training your needs and they will develop a leadership Training course that is right for you.

LEADERSHIP STYLE AND ITS APPLICABILITY IN INDIA

Before one discus the leadership styles in India, one needs to look at the business environment in India. India has today seen a lot of transformation from an unexciting mix of government owned companies and private family owned companies, many of which survived on government licenses to the inflow of multinational companies and lot of Indian companies being run as professional companies. Further, today there is talk of privatizing public sector companies, however, there are some public sector companies earning profits. All these changes in the business environment has led to a change in the leadership styles, in certain cases leadership styles have changed business.

Even though the above style of leadership still exists in many private sector companies, there has been a change in the style of leadership in many of the professional run Indian companies. It has become more democratic. However, in order to change the way India companies function, there is a lot of work still to be done. Change of leadership style is an important area in which Indian companies should invest time and energy. In a labour abundant country, people's satisfaction is an easy thing to forget, however, it is important that their needs are fulfilled, if the organisation is to be successful. People are the greatest asset an organisation has and if leaders of organisation adopt leadership styles that are democratic and transforming, then the organisation would well be on its way to achieving its objectives. As the CEO of GE, Jack Welch has said, "we cannot afford management styles that suppress and intimidate."

EXAMPLES

The best practices of top leadership in a few Indian organizations. These are the examples of leaders who will shape India incorporation in the third millennium. They will be the leading lights in the first one or two decades of the new century and the new millennium.

* Anil Ambani, Managing Director, Reliance industries, believes in benchmarking, against best international practices to enhance global competitiveness and further improve performance. He along with his brother Mukesh Ambani, Vice - chairman, has developed Reliance industries as a team - driven company

* Deepak Chhabria, Deputy Managing Director, Finolex Cables Ltd. believes in quality, which has been the Hallmark of the company since its beginning. Elaborate planning and implementation of the right strategies at the right time has been the key of Finolex's phenomenal success. It is by careful planning and thinking and with correct implementation that the company has been able to consolidate its position: Stringent quality control has enabled the company to establish a standing in the market and to foster and nourish brand loyalty

* Keki Dadiseth, Chairman, Hindustan Lever, believes that the new millennium will be a period of intellect and knowledge management. HLL has taken much initiative to meet the challenges in the environment.

* Ashvin Dani, Vice - Chairman and Managing Director, Asian paints is a prochanger and innovator. According to him,"anyone who refuses to change and meet emerging challenges will be wiped out." His vision is to become a major player in several emerging economies globally, consolidating APL's position as a strong multinational company. He believes that continuous improvement is the need of time. For him there is always a scope for strengthening the core areas of business. He wants to come out with new products and services with faster pace to keep costs down.

* K.K. Kamath is the man responsible for making ICICI what it is today a top financial institution and a brand 8S ubiquitous and powerful.as perhaps any in independent India.

He is a man with clear vision He believes in speed

His ambition is to make ICICI a global financial powerhouse.

He is also an avid reader and an intrepid traveler, besides being a keen observer, always ready to learn.

* R. K. Krishna Kumar, the CEO of India Hotels, is a man of crisis. His peers describe him as a strong, focused and articulate professional and also one who knows how "to disagree agreeably" and he believes in fostering team spirit and building commitment through leadership by example. His vision for the Taj group is for it to be "a select chain, with global presence.

* Deepak Parekh of Housing Development Finance Corporation uses technology to redefine business. Accessibility and informality are his attributes that not only contribute to his success but also endear him to all and sundry. "Walking that extra mile" is Deepak Parekh's philosophy. His future goal is to create a globally competitive financial giant straddling insurance, housing and banking.

* Azim Premji, Chairman, Wipro believes in vision. His aim is to make Wipro the most admired company of India. People and their continuous pursuit of quality are keys of Wipro's performance. To reach the nO.1 most admired company, he believes in faster growth and delivering customer delight. He wants the company to be socially responsible. To delight the customer, the company will be increasing cycle, times, raising employee sensitivity to customer and improving quality. Premji says that most of the major changes in Wipro's IT business were part of a planned strategy to meet the global challenges and grow the business ahead of the industry growth rate. 

CONCLUSION

The most important thing you do is LEAD your people. Every productive activity on your daily agenda is leadership, regardless of what you call it. The most valuable commodity of any great organization is the quality of good people. They deserve the most inspired caring leadership you can provide. Leaders seize the opportunity and use it properly to attain excellence. A critical factor in the exercise of leadership is the adaptability of the person in charge. Whenever any of the variables change, the necessarily "right" style must change. The style that worked yesterday may not work tomorrow--but the leader will adapt. It takes time for a new leader to identify the "right" style of leadership. The leader may then have established a pattern of behavior that will stick with him or her for the rest of their lives. Another component of good leadership is caring. Good leaders care about and take of their people. Quality of leadership must be assessed by looking at where the irritants lie. Cooperative groups generally come from good environment. A good senior leader can do things to overcome poor leadership below them. The converse is not true. Even the most inspired junior leaders cannot compensate for the "wrong" style imposed upon them and their team from above. Way to look at leadership is to consider how it is used

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9. Palanski, M.E., & Yammarino, F.J. (2007). Integrity and leadership: Clearing the conceptual confusion. European Management Journal, 25, 171-184.

10. Yammarino, F.J., & Dansereau, F. (2008).  Multi-level nature of and multi-level approaches to leadership.  Leadership Quarterly, 19, 135-141.

11. Chun, J.U., Yammarino, F.J., Dionne, S.D., Sosik, J.J., & Moon, H.K. (2009). Leadership across hierarchical levels: Multiple levels of management and multiple levels of analysis. Leadership Quarterl

12. Simmons, B.L., Gooty, J., Nelson, D.L., & Little, L.M. Attachment theory, trust and performance.
Journal of Organizational Behavior. (Forthcoming)
 

                                                                                                                                                                               

   Published on IndianFaculty.com: 09/01/2012

 Source: E-mail 09/01/2012

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