Comparative Effectiveness of Concept Attainment Model and Traditional Method for Acquisition of Physics Concepts in Class IX


By
Dr. Madhu Mathur
Head & Dean Faculty of Education
Amit Kumar
Ph.D Scholar
Banasthali Vidyapeeth
Banasthali
 


Abstract

Teaching a subject like physics needs special teaching methods. Inspite  of the fact that physics has a great importance in modern times , the subject of physics is considered very difficult among students. It has been felt that inspite of strenuous efforts of physics teacher , students fail to grasp the certain concepts of subject , which lead disinterest among students towards physics. More ever students are often unable to apply their knowledge to advance studies. Therefore there is a need to study the effectiveness of the teaching methods in physics .This study is based on facts collected from Shri Krishna Senior Secondary School , Mohindergarh (Haryana).  The main aim of this study is to bring out the relative effectiveness of concept attainment model of teaching and conventional method of teaching on the achievement of students for acquisition of physics concepts in class IX. Our study reveals that there is a significant difference between concept attainment model (CAM) method and traditional method (TM) on the achievement of students in understanding of physics concepts. Of these methods concept attainment model is more effective than traditional method. 

Introduction

Teaching is often thought as something that comes naturally to people who know their subject. But teaching is an intriguing, important and complex process. It takes place in a complicated social institution which is filled with diverse people. The teacher must learn to control five processes of teaching.

i.  Making and using of knowledge
ii.  Shaping the school
iii. Teaching with strategy
iv. Creating interpersonal climates
v. controlling a teaching personality

Bruner also emphasized four major features of theory of instruction in effective teaching.

(a)  Predisposition towards learning
(b)  Structured body of knowledge
(c)  Sequences of material to be learnt
(d)  Nature and paving of reward and punishment

However teacher does broadly remain pivot around which the entire process revolves in the formal system. During the last two decades many new methods of teaching and training have been developed, tested, modified and adopted to different kinds of teaching learning situation. Model of teaching is an innovative method of teaching. There is need to direct efforts towards transformation of teaching methods right upto development of science and technology, curriculum and material research along with teacher orientation to receive attention. The ultimate responsibility of information processing has been enshrined by the society in teachers. Thus a theory of teaching must attempt to set forth the means of maximizing learning on the part of children. For achieving needed learner behaviour intellectual development and acquisition of knowledge and specific mental process like reasoning, scientific creativity be primary concerns for effective and efficient information processing.

In the concern Joyce has stated, "To provide an all round development we need to design suitable instructional strategies which helps our students grow emotionally, physically, socially and intellectually. There still exists a big gap between theoretical knowledge and actual teaching in classroom or schools. Models of teaching as strategies need to be incorporated in our teaching practice." A variety of teaching approaches have been evolved to design instruction. But which approach/Model of teaching is most appropriate having better impact, effective, efficient, interesting. Can only be answered through research keeping each Model's instructional and nurturant effects in view.

Concept Attainment Model (CAM)

The term Concept Attainment Model is historically linked with the work of Jerome S.Bruner and his associates. This Model is intended to teach specific concepts by comparing and contrasting examples that contain the concept with examples that do not contain the concept. It is built up from Bruner's work on the cognitive activity called categorizing. He is of the opinion that categorizing helps to reduce the complexity of environment and necessity for concept learning.

Objectives of the study

The objectives of the present study were as follows:

i) To compare the adjusted mean scores of physics concept understanding of concept attainment model group and traditional method group by considering pre-physics concept understanding  and intelligence as a covariates.

ii) To compare the mean scores of students liking of concept attainment model and traditional method group.

iii) To study the effect of treatment, sex, and their interaction on physics concept understanding by considering pre-physics concept understanding and intelligence as covariates.

iv) To study the effect of treatment, intelligence, and their interaction on physics concept understanding by taking pre-physics concept understanding as a covariate.

Hypotheses

i) There will be no significant difference in adjusted mean scores of physics concept understanding of concept attainment model group and traditional method group by considering pre-physics concept understanding and intelligence as covariates.(H1)

ii) There will be no significant difference in mean scores of students liking of concept attainment model and traditional method groups.(H2)

iii) There will be no significant effect of treatment , sex and their interaction on physics concept understanding of students when pre-physics concept understanding and intelligence are taken as covariates.(H3)

iv) There will be no significant effect of treatment, intelligence and their interaction on physics concept understanding when pre-physics concept understanding is taken as a covariate.(H4)

Method of study

Experimental research method was adopted in the present study. The data required for the present study were collected through achievement tests (pre-test & post-test), students liking scale and Raven's standard matrices scale.

Sample

For the present study the stratified random sampling technique was used to select 60 students of class IX from Shri Krishna Sen. Sec. school, Mohindergarh (Haryana).

Experimental procedure

Before starting the experiment, all the 60 students of class IX were given pre-test on physics topics. Motion, Acceleration, Inertia, Change of state and Evaporation were the topics selected for study.Two equal groups , 30 students each, were chosen. The age range of the two groups was also equal. The group A was taught by concept attainment model and group B was taught by the traditional method. Two groups were taught on the alternative days for one month and after one month, post-test was administered to the two groups. The scores obtained at pre-test and post-test were recorded. Students liking was assessed with the help of students liking scale developed by Malhotra and Passi. Intelligence score of two groups was obtained by administering Raven's Standard Matrices Scale.

In order to interpret and test the hypotheses stated in the study , the following statistical techniques were deployed i.e. (i) t-test and (ii) F-ratio (ANCOVA).

Results and Discussion

The results of this investigation have been presented and discussed hypotheses wise as under:

For Effectiveness of CAM (H1)

The data related to first objective was analyzed with the help analysis of covariance. The results are given below in table.

Table-1: Summary of ANCOVA for physics concept understanding by considering pre-physics concept understanding and intelligence as covariates

Source of variance

df

Sum of squares

Mean squares

F- value

Treatment

1

835.18

835.18

25.03**

Error

58

1935.02

33.36

 

Total

60

88671.00

   

**Significant at 0.01 level

From table 1, it is observed that the adjusted F-value is significant at 0.01 level with df = 1/58. It indicates that adjusted mean scores of CAM and TM groups differ significantly when pre-physics concept understanding and intelligence were considered as covariates. In the light of this the first hypotheses H1 is rejected. Further, the adjusted mean scores of CAM group was 41.45 which is significantly higher than that of TM group whose adjusted mean score was 32.60. It reflects that treatment given to the CAM group was found to be significantly superior to Traditional Method of teaching. It may, therefore , concluded that CAM was found to be superior to TM.

For students liking of CAM (H2)

The data related to second objective was analyzed with the help of t-test. The results are given below in
table 2

Table-2: Group wise M, N, S.D., and t-value of students liking

Group

M

N

S.D.

t-value

CAM

138.42

30

11.05

8.48**

TM

116.57

30

8.94

 

**Significant at 0.01 level

From table-2, it is observed that the t-value is 8.48 which is significant at 0.01 level. It indicates that mean scores of students liking of CAM and TM groups differ significantly. In this context the second null hypotheses H2 is rejected. Further, from table-2 , it can be seen that mean score of students liking of CAM group was found to be significantly superior to TM group. It may ,therefore, be said that students of CAM group were found to have significantly higher students liking in comparison to students of TM group.

For effect of treatment, sex and their interaction on physics concept understanding H3

The data for third objective was analyzed with the help of 2*2 factorial analysis of covariance. The results are given below in table-3

Table-3 : Summary of 2*2 factorial design when pre-physics concept understanding and intelligence are taken as covariates

Source of variance

df

Sum of squares

Mean squares

F-value

  Sex

1

1.98

1.98

0.60

Treatment

1

828.19

828.19

25.15**

Sex*Treatment

1

24.81

24.81

0.75

Error

56

1844.168

32.932

 

Total

60

88671.00

   

**significant at 0.01 level.

From table-3, it can be seen that F-value of treatment is significant at 0.01 level which indicates that mean scores of physics concept understanding of students taught through CAM and TM differ significantly when pre-physics concept understanding was taken as a covariate. In this context of treatment the third hypotheses is rejected. Further , the adjusted mean scores of physics concept understanding of CAM group was 41.45 which is significantly higher than TM group whose adjusted mean score was 32.6. It may, therefore, be concluded that CAM was found to be significantly superior in comparison to TM.

The adjusted F-value for sex is 0.60 which is not significant. In this context the third hypotheses is not rejected. It may, therefore, be concluded that physics concept understanding was found to be independent of sex when pre-physics concept understanding was taken as covariate.

The adjusted F-value for interaction between sex and treatment is 0.75 which is not significant. In this context also the third hypotheses is not rejected. It may ,therefore, be concluded that physics concept understanding was found to be independent of interaction between treatment and sex.

For effect of treatment, intelligence, and their interaction on physics concept understanding H4

The data related to last objective was analyzed with the help of 2*2 ANCOVA. The results are given in
table - 4.

Table-4: Summary of 2*2 factorial design ANCOVA

Source of
variance

df

Sum of
squares

Mean
square

F-value

Treatment

1

445.40

445.40

11.74**

Intelligence

1

73.03

73.03

1.93

Treatment*Intelligence

1

19.55

19.553

0.52

Error

57

2161.06

37.93

 

Total

60

89411.00

   

**Significant at 0.01 level

From table-4, it can be seen that F-value of treatment is 11.74 which is significant at 0.01 level. In the context of treatment the last hypotheses is rejected. Further the adjusted mean score of physics concept understanding of CAM group was 41.45 which is significantly higher than TM group whose adjusted mean score was 32.60. It may, therefore, concluded that CAM was found to be significantly superior in comparison to TM.

The adjusted F-value for intelligence is 1.93 which is not significant. Thus in this context the last objective is not rejected which concluded that physics concept understanding was found to be independent of intelligence when pre-physics concept understanding score was taken as a covariate.

For interaction between treatment and intelligence the adjusted F-value is 0.52 which is not significant. In this context also the last hypotheses is not rejected which concluded that physics concept understanding was found to be independent of interaction between treatment and intelligence when pre-physics concept understanding was taken as a covariate.

Conclusions

On the basis of the results drawn and discussion with the physics teachers of senior secondary schools of Mohindergarh district, the following conclusions have been drawn:

  • Concept Attainment Model of teaching is superior and effective in terms of physics concept understanding of students in comparison to Traditional Method.
  • Concept Attainment Model has significantly higher students liking in comparison to Traditional Method.

Educational Implications

As the present study review that Concept Attainment Model was effective in terms of physics concept understanding of students, hence CAM should be used by the school teacher in class room teaching specially in teaching physics concepts. In order to orient the interest of teachers towards use of CAM in class room teaching, workshops and seminars should be organized.

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   Published on IndianFaculty.com: 19/04/2012

 Source: E-mail 19/04/2012

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